Problems concerning management, year-round in-pen keeping

Year-round in-pen keeping 

  • species-appropriate food intake is possible only on pasture
  • lack of movement causes metabolic problems (e.g. ketosis, other problems with energy or fat metabolism)
  • outdoor climate facilitates hormonal balance
  • sunlight and UV radiation stimulate vitamin D production
  • outdoor run and pasture allow withdrawal and give space for low-ranking animals
  • sufficient movement improves fertility

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